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Spatio-temporal Distribution of Meningitis in HIV Patients in Northern Egypt (2000-2018)

[ Vol. 18 , Issue. 6 ]


Ekram W. Abd El-Wahab*, Yamen Hegazy, Talaat Farrag and Mohammed Metwally   Pages 405 - 414 ( 10 )


Background: Meningitis is a leading cause of death among patients living with HIV. There is no adequate tracking of the disease occurrence, distribution and etiologic agents among this risk group in Egypt, although the pattern could differ from that of the general population.

Objectives: We aimed to describe the spatio-temporal distribution of meningitis in HIV patients in a region of Northern Egypt over 18 years (2000-2018).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 352 adult HIV patients admitted to a tertiary care fever hospital with neurological manifestations suggesting meningitis. We retrieved from inpatient records all data relevant to patient demographics, clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, results of laboratory investigations (CSF, blood, imaging), definitive diagnosis, and in-hospital mortality.

Results: The overall trend of over 2 decades showed fluctuating incidence of meningitis in HIV infected patients and increasing spread into rural areas, with a uniform circulation among adult males. Cryptococcal meningitis was the most common etiologic agent (26.9%) and was associated with worse outcomes. Focal neurological deficit (38.5%), cranial nerve involvement (48.1%) were common features in TB Meningitis. The mortality was high (56.8%) and was significantly associated with low CD4+ count, advanced AIDs clinical stage and the presence of co-morbidities.

Conclusion: Despite the availability of cART, meningitis, particularly cryptococcal, is common in HIV/AIDS population in Egypt. Continued efforts are desperately needed to improve the outcomes of HIV-infected patients.


Spatial distribution, temporal distribution, meningitis, HIV, AIDS, IRIS.


Department of Tropical Health, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Department of Endemic and Infectious Diseases, Alexandria Fever Hospital, Alexandria, Department of Endemic and Infectious Diseases, Alexandria Fever Hospital, Alexandria

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