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Socioeconomic and Demographic Statuses as Determinants of Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment in HIV Infected Patients: A Systematic Review of the Literature

[ Vol. 17 , Issue. 3 ]

Author(s):

Nuredin Nassir Azmach*, Temam Abrar Hamza and Awel Abdella Husen   Pages 161 - 172 ( 12 )

Abstract:


Background: Socioeconomic and demographic statuses are associated with adherence to the treatment of patients with several chronic diseases. However, there is a controversy regarding their impact on adherence among HIV/AIDS patients. Thus, we performed a systematic review of the evidence regarding the association of socioeconomic and demographic statuses with adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV/AIDS patients.

Methods: The PubMed database was used to search and identify studies concerning about socioeconomic and demographic statuses and HIV/AIDS patients. Data were collected on the association between adherence to ART and varies determinants factors of socioeconomic (income, education, and employment/occupation) and socio-demographic (sex and age).

Findings: From 393 potentially-relevant articles initially identified, 35 original studies were reviewed in detail, which contained data that were helpful in evaluating the association between socioeconomic/ demographic statuses and adherence to ART among HIV patients. Two original research study has specifically focused on the possible association between socioeconomic status and adherence to ART. Income, level of education, and employment/occupational status were significantly and positively associated with the level of adherence in 7 studies (36.8%), 7 studies (28.0%), and 4 studies (23.5%) respectively out of 19, 25, and 17 studies reviewed. Sex (being male), and age (per year increasing) were significantly and positively associated with the level of adherence in 5 studies (14.3%), and 9 studies (25.7%) respectively out of 35 studies reviewed. However, the determinant of socioeconomic and demographic statuses was not found to be significantly associated with adherence in studies related to income 9(47.4%), education 17(68.0%), employment/ occupational 10(58.8%), sex 27(77.1%), and age 25(71.4%).

Conclusion: The majority of the reviewed studies reported that there is no association between socio- demographic and economic variables and adherence to therapy. Whereas, some studies show that age of HIV patients (per year increasing) and sex (being male) were positively associated with adherence to ART. Among socio-economic factors, the available evidence does not provide conclusive support for the existence of a clear association with adherence to ART among HIV patients. There seems to be a positive trend between socioeconomic factors and adherence to ART in some of the reviewed studies.

Keywords:

ART, HIV/AIDS, adherence, ARV, socioeconomic, socio-demographic.

Affiliation:

Department of Statistics, College of Natural Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Department of Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Department of Physics, College of Natural Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch

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