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Host Restriction Factors and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1): A Dynamic Interplay Involving All Phases of the Viral Life Cycle

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 3 ]

Author(s):

Vanessa D`Urbano, Elisa De Crignis and Maria Carla Re*   Pages 184 - 207 ( 24 )

Abstract:


Mammalian cells have evolved several mechanisms to prevent or block lentiviral infection and spread. Among the innate immune mechanisms, the signaling cascade triggered by type I interferon (IFN) plays a pivotal role in limiting the burden of HIV-1. In the presence of IFN, human cells upregulate the expression of a number of genes, referred to as IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), many of them acting as antiviral restriction factors (RFs). RFs are dominant proteins that target different essential steps of the viral cycle, thereby providing an early line of defense against the virus. The identification and characterization of RFs have provided unique insights into the molecular biology of HIV-1, further revealing the complex host-pathogen interplay that characterizes the infection. The presence of RFs drove viral evolution, forcing the virus to develop specific proteins to counteract their activity. The knowledge of the mechanisms that prevent viral infection and their viral counterparts may offer new insights to improve current antiviral strategies. This review provides an overview of the RFs targeting HIV-1 replication and the mechanisms that regulate their expression as well as their impact on viral replication and the clinical course of the disease.

Keywords:

HIV-1, immune response, restriction factors, IFN, RFs, ISGs.

Affiliation:

Retrovirus Laboratory, Operative Unit of Clinical Microbiology, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna, Retrovirus Laboratory, Operative Unit of Clinical Microbiology, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna, Retrovirus Laboratory, Operative Unit of Clinical Microbiology, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna

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