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Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid 25(OH)Vitamin D3 Levels in HIV-1 and Tuberculosis: A Cross-Sectional Study from a Tertiary Care Center in North India

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Sanjeev Sinha*, Kartik Gupta, Dibyakanti Mandal, B.K. Das and R.M. Pandey   Pages 167 - 173 ( 7 )

Abstract:


Background: Vitamin D is an immunomodulator, and its deficiency is associated with Tuberculosis (TB) infection. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is a rich milieu of macrophages that form the first line of defense against invading TB bacilli. As there is an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in TB and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) subjects, we intend exploring the possibility of a localized deficiency of vitamin D metabolites in BALF of these patients.

Objective: The primary objective was to assess the level of 25D3 in serum and BALF of subjects and look for a significant difference among patients and controls. The secondary objective was to find a correlation between serum and BALF 25D3 levels.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study with subjects divided into four groups: Controls (group 1), HIV positive without active TB (group 2), active TB without HIV (group 3), and HIV-TB coinfection (group 4). BALF and serum 25D3 levels were compared between the groups.

Results: Among the 149 (an immunomodulator) successive subjects enrolled, there were 40 subjects in group 1 (HIV-TB-), 48 in group 2 (HIV+TB-), 37 in group 3 (HIV-TB+), and 24 in group 4 (HIV+TB+). Females constituted 31.6% of the study subjects. In groups 3 and 4, there were significantly lower serum 25D3 levels compared to group 1 (p-value group 3: 0.002; group 4: 0.012). In groups 2, 3, and 4, there were significantly lower BALF 25D3 levels compared to group 1 (p-value group 2: 0.000; group 3: 0.000; group 4: 0.001). There was a significant correlation between serum and BALF 25D3 levels (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient 0.318, p-value = 0.0001).

Conclusion: Lower levels of serum and BALF 25D3 were observed in HIV, TB, and HIV-TB coinfected patients. Localized deficiency of vitamin D metabolites might be associated with increased vulnerability to TB infection.

Keywords:

Vitamin 25D3, HIV-1, TB, HIV-1& TB Co-infection, BALF 25D3, Serum.

Affiliation:

Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029, Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029, Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029, Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029, Department of Biostatistics, Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029

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