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Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: A Thorough Review, Present Status and Future Perspective as HIV Therapeutics

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 6 ]

Author(s):

Ashley D. Holec, Subhra Mandal*, Pavan Kumar Prathipati and Christopher J. Destache   Pages 411 - 421 ( 11 )

Abstract:


Background: Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a severe viral infection that has claimed approximately 658,507 lives in the US between the years 2010-2014. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has proven to inhibit HIV-1, but unlike other viral illness, not cure the infection.

Objective: Among various Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved ARVs, nucleoside/ nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are most effective in limiting HIV-1 infection. This review focuses on NRTIs mechanism of action and metabolism.

Methods: A search of PubMed (1982-2016) was performed to capture relevant articles regarding NRTI pharmacology.

Results: The current classical NRTIs pharmacology for HIV-1 prevention and treatment are presented. Finally, various novel strategies are proposed to improve the efficacy of NRTIs, which will increase therapeutic efficiency of present-day HIV-1 prevention/treatment regimen.

Conclusion: Use of NRTIs will continue to be critical for successful treatment and prevention of HIV-1.

Keywords:

Antiretroviral drugs, antiretroviral therapy, NRTIs, HIV-1, AIDS, nanomedicine.

Affiliation:

Creighton University Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Omaha, NE, Creighton University School of Pharmacy & Health Professions, Omaha, NE, Creighton University School of Pharmacy & Health Professions, Omaha, NE, Creighton University School of Pharmacy & Health Professions, Omaha, NE

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