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Association between Vitamin D Status, Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Viral Load in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 5 ]

Author(s):

Tamires Flauzino, Andrea N.C. Simao , Elaine R.D. de Almeida , Helena K. Morimoto, Sayonara R. Oliveira , Daniela F. Alfieri, Luiz T. Ueda, Isaias Dichi and Edna M.V. Reiche *   Pages 336 - 344 ( 9 )

Abstract:


Background: The role of vitamin D in the pathophysiology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is still unclear.

Objective: To evaluate the associations between vitamin D and immunological, virological, and oxidative stress biomarkers in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection.

Methods: The serum levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were determined in 314 HIV-1- infected individuals and 127 controls and the values ≥30 ng/mL defined a vitamin D sufficient (VDS) status, and <30 ng/mL defined the presence of hypovitaminosis D (HD). Oxidative stress was evaluated with plasma levels of lipid hydroperoxides, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), carbonyl protein, nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), and sulfhydryl groups of proteins. Plasma HIV-1 viral load and CD4+/CD8+ T cells were quantified.

Results: The 25(OH)D levels and vitamin D status did not differ between HIV-1-infected individuals and controls. Hydroperoxides and AOPP were higher (p<0.0001 and p=0.002, respectively), whereas TRAP, carbonyl protein, and NOx were lower in HIV-1-infected individuals than controls (p<0.0001). HIV-1-infected individuals with HD showed higher hydroperoxide levels than those with a VDS status (p=0.012) and controls (p=0.022), independent of ethnicity and antiretroviral therapy. A positive correlation between 25(OH)D ≥30 ng/mL and viral load was observed when expressed as the number of copies/mL (r=0.178, p=0.039), as well as log10 copies/mL (r=0.183, p=0.033).

Conclusion: These results suggest the bimodal influence of vitamin D in the modulation of immune response in HIV-1 infection, considering its differential susceptibility to modulation of the various immune targets and pathways.

Keywords:

Human immunodeficiency virus infection, vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, oxidative stress, viral load, HIV-1 infection.

Affiliation:

Postgraduate Program, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Department of Pathology, Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Department of Pathology, Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Department of Pathology, Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Department of Pathology, Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Postgraduate Program, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Integrated Center of Infectious Diseases of 17a Secretariat of Health of Parana, Londrina, Parana State, Department of Clinical Medicine, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Department of Pathology, Clinical Analysis and Toxicology, Health Sciences Center, Londrina State University, Av. Robert Koch, 60, CEP 86.038-440, Londrina, Parana

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